| Objective To observe and compare the teaching effects of problem-based learning (PBL) and case-based learning (CBL) combined with problem-originated clinical medicine curriculum (PCMC) on standardized training of nurses in the department of respiratory medicine. Methods Thirty-one standardized training nurses from the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nanjing Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University/Nanjing First Hospital during April 2019 to March 2020 were taken as the control group, and CBL combined with PCMC was used for teaching. Another 31 nurses from April 2020 to March 2021 were taken as the observation group, using PBL combined with PCMC teaching. Both teaching period lasted for 3 months. The examination results, their work ability before and after training and their recognition of teaching methods were compared between the two groups. SPSS 25.0 was used for t test and chi-square test. Results The scores of academic and practical evaluation were significantly higher in the observation group than the control group [(92.58±5.25) vs. (86.80±6.74); (90.05±6.27) vs. (85.64±7.23)]. After the training, the scores of leadership, clinical nursing, education and consultation, interpersonal relationship, legal and ethical practice, and professional development, critical thinking and scientific research and the total scores of working ability were significantly improved than before the training (P<0.05), and the scores of the above dimensions of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). In addition, the observation group's recognition scores of teaching methods to clarify the learning focus, mobilize learning enthusiasm, broaden knowledge, enhance group collaboration, improve nurse-patient communication skills, cultivate critical thinking, and promote teacher-student communication were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion The application of PCMC combined with PBL in the standardized training of nurses in the department of respiratory medicine not only helps to improve the assessment results, but also enhances their working ability and is recognized by them.