引用本文:张新军.美国医学教育的世纪变革———以两个弗莱克斯纳报告为线索[J].中华医学教育探索杂志,2015,14(4):334~336
美国医学教育的世纪变革———以两个弗莱克斯纳报告为线索
Centennial transformation in American medical education:two Flexner reports
DOI:
中文关键词:  弗莱克斯纳  医学教育  住院医师规培
英文关键词:Flexner  Medical education  Residency
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作者单位
张新军 Institute of English Studies, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan 442000, China 
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中文摘要:
      1910年卡耐基基金会发布了《美国和加拿大的医学教育》,俗称“弗莱克斯纳报告”,为医学专业奠定了坚实的科学基础,设定了卓越的教育标准。然而,20世纪的现实发展距报告所倡导的专业理想渐行渐远。2010年卡耐基基金会发布了《培养医生:对医学院与住院医师规培的改革呼吁》,被称作“弗莱克斯纳报告2号”,提出了21世纪医学教育的改革目标:学习结果的标准化与学习过程的个性化;理论知识与临床体验的整合;培养探究与创新的习惯及重视专业身份的形成。
英文摘要:
      Medical Education in the United States and Canada released by the Carnegie Foun-dation in 1910, known as “The Flexner Report”, laid scientific foundations and set excellent standards for American medical education. However, the 20th century reality fell behind the professional ideals advanced in the report. In 2010, the Carnegie Foundation released Educating Physician: A Call for Reform of Medical School and Residency, called “The Flexner Report 2”, which recommends four goals for medical education in the 21st century: standardization of learning outcomes and individualization of the learning process; integration of formal knowledge and clinical experience; development of habits of inquiry and innovation; and focus on professional identity formation.
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